EJR and JEI believe that an inordinate spread of civil liability has harmed American economic and institutional life. EJR and JEI have developed strict criteria for evaluating judges objectively from this point of view. The report includes cases spanning a period of years to provide the best understanding of a judge's philosophy in cases affecting the spread of liability in our society. The decisions chosen for inclusion in the report are principally those that meet two criteria: first, in the opinion of EJR and JEI they will tend either to expand liability even further or, conversely, help stop its spread; second, they present legal issues about which judges who heard or reviewed a case disagreed. Among the questions we ask are whether a decision further expands liability, tends to affect the availability of beneficial services, creates certainty or uncertainty in the law, tends to encourage or discourage business expansion in Oklahoma, and fosters or discourages job creation in the state.